The first escalators were smooth moving walkways without steps. A little later they wereequipped with handrails, and the escalator acquired a modern look by 1921 Almost from thevery beginning, those who did not walk on the escalator, but just stood, stood on the right tolet passengers go on the left, which creates a queue in front of the escalator, so how only itsright side is fully involved. And some of those who go up the left do it so as not to wait in line,but they don’t go while standing, fearing condemnation from behind. This “undergroundetiquette” is observed in many countries of the world to this day. When people just stand onboth the left and right sides – the capacity of the escalator is much higher than when they go upon the left side.
In fact, it is not the staircase itself that moves, but the steps, which are a closed circuitmoving from an electric motor using a gearbox. The width of the steps of the escalator variesfrom 0.5 to 1 meter.
When you enter the escalator and when leaving it, the steps are aligned in a flat surfaceso that it is more convenient for people. And for a comfortable and safe trip, each escalator hashandrails on both sides that move simultaneously with the steps.
Handrails, as a rule, have a rubber coating, which is convenient, inexpensive and quitehygienic, but at the same time has a high degree of wear. If the railing is worn out and somekind of defect appears, then they begin to move at a different speed than the steps. In thiscase, the cover of the handrails must be urgently replaced, since the other speed of thehandrails or their property is not only inconvenient, but can also be traumatic for humans.
Previously, escalators were used only in the subway or deep underground passages.Today, escalators are everywhere installed in shopping centers, train stations, airports,supermarkets.
In some cities in Europe, escalators are used directly on the street, if the terrain is toosloping and using stairs is not practical, while they replace a less convenient and less spaciousfunicular. The inventor of the escalators is the American Jess Renault, who developed it inMarch 1892 Then the escalators were a moving surface without steps and were used as anattraction. For the convenience of moving people in the subway, escalators began to beinstalled only in 1921
The longest escalator is located in the metro of St. Petersburg, its length is 137.4 metersand the total lift height is 68.7 meters.
To date, there are special standards that must be met by the premises where it isplanned to install escalators. If such a device as escalators was chosen to move people, thentheir number and size should correspond to all guests, as well as the number of visitors to thisroom.
Escalators are manufactured by companies specializing only in their creation andcomponents for them, or by large companies that manufacture various lifting mechanisms ingeneral.